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4                         .          MATHUBl IS THE TIME OF AKBAB.

extended east of the capital along the Doab in the direction of Mainpuri ; for
there the mango flourishes most luxuriantly and almost every village boasts a fine
grove ; whereas in Western Matbura it will scarcely grow at all except nnder
the most careful treatment. In support of this inference it may be observed
that, notwithstanding the number of monasteries and stupas mentioned by the
Buddhist pilgrims as existing in the kingdom of Mathura, comparatively few
traces of any such buildings have been discovered in the modern district, ex-
cept in the immediate neighbourhood of the capital. In Mainpnri, on the con-
trary, and more especially on the side where it is nearest to Mathur&j fragments
of BnddMst sculpture may be seen lying in almost every village. In all pro-
bability the territory of MathurA, at the time of Hwen Thsang's visit, included
not only the eastern half of the modesn district, but also some small part of Agra
and the whole of the Shikohabad and Mustafabad parganas of Mainpnri; while
the remainder of the present Mainpnri district formed a portion of the kingdom
of Sankasya, which extended to the borders of Kananj. But all local recollec-
tion of this exceptional period has absolutely perished, and the mutilated effigies
of Buddha and Maya are replaced on their pedestals and adored as Brahma and
Devi by the ignorant villagers, whose forefathers^ after long struggles, had tri-
umphed in their overthrow.

In the time of the Emperor Akbar the land now included in the Mathur4
district formed parts j&f three different Sarkars, or Divisions—viz., Agra, Kol, and


The Agra Sarkar comprised 33 mahals, four of which were Mathur4, Ma-
holi, Mangotk, and MaMrban. Of these, the second, Maholi, (the Madhupuri
of Sanskrit literature) is now quite an insignificant village and is so close to
the city as almost to form one of its suburbs. The third, Mangotla or Magora,
has disappeared altogether from tihe revenue-roll, having been divided into four
patti*, or shares, which ure now accounted so many distinct villages. The
fourth, Maha-ban, in addition to its present area, included some ten villages of
what is now the Sa'dabad pargana and the whole of Mat; while Noh-jhil, lately
united with Mat, was at that time the centre of pargana Noh,* which was in-
cluded in the Kol Sarkar. The Sa'dibadf pargana had no independent exist-
ence till the reign of BhahjaMn, when his famous minister, Sa'dullah Khan,

* Tiiere ii another luge town, bearing i&e same strange name of Koh, at no gte&t distance,
but rat of th« Jamuna, in the distjict of Gi^gimr.   It is specially noted for its
wit works.

f 1*. Hmter, IE hi« Imperial Gazetteer, has thought proper to represent the name of this
—— m SajtfsJba^ which he wmets to Sayyidabad I